Sugar Glossary

A B C .. D E F .. G H I .. J K L .. M N O .. P Q R .. S T U .. V W X .. Y Z


B

Beet sugar means sugar that is processed directly or indirectly from sugar beets, sugar beet molasses or in-process beet sugar whether produced domestically or imported.

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C

Cane juice means water containing the sucrose extracted from crushed sugarcane.

Cane sugar means sugar derived directly or indirectly from sugarcane produced in the United States, including sugar produced from sugarcane molasses.

Cane sugar refiner means a person in the U.S. Customs Territory that refines raw cane sugar through affination or defecation, clarification, and further purification by absorption or crystallization.

Cane syrup means concentrated cane juice from which no sucrose has been extracted.  Weight is based on sugar solids contained.

CCC means the Commodity Credit Corporation.

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D

Deliveries means the movement of refined sugar from a cane sugar refiner, a sugar beet processor, a sugarcane processor, or a trader, to end-users or brokers for consumption, either as sugar or for use in products containing sugar, including sugar delivered to manufacturers for use in products to be exported.

Direct-consumption sugar means any sugar which is not to be further refined or improved in quality, whether such sugar is principally of crystalline structure or is liquid sugar, edible molasses, sugar syrup, or cane syrup.

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E

Edible molasses means molasses that is not to be further refined or improved in quality and that is to be distributed for human consumption, either directly or in molasses-containing products.

Entry:  For purposes of USDA sugar reporting, "Entry" of sugar can only be reported after the reporting company has a completed Entry Summary form (CBP Form 7501), or equivalent electronic form if using the Automated Broker Interface (ABI).  Documents must be retained for 5 years.

Exports:  For purposes of USDA sugar reporting, USDA uses the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) definition of export.  For evidence of export to Mexico, a pedimento (Mexican Customs Form) from the importer must be obtained.  For export to Canada, a Canadian Customs B-3 must be obtained.  For countries other than Canada and Mexico, the report of an export may be made only after a Shippers Export Declaration (SED Form 7525-V) is obtained.   Documents must be retained for 5 years. Exports are recorded in the month coinciding with the transaction date noted on the Custom’s form. 

Extraction Rate:  Extraction rate refers to the percent of sucrose obtained from processing sugar beets or sugarcane, compared to the sucrose content in the sugar beet or sugarcane before processing -- pounds sucrose obtained/pound sucrose before slicing/crushing. 

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F

Fiscal year means that year beginning October 1 and ending the following September 30, i.e., FY 2008 is the period from October 1, 2007 - September 30, 2008. 

FSA means the Farm Service Agency.

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I

Imports:  For purposes of USDA sugar reporting, an "Import" has occurred when a good has physically cleared through U.S. Customs and Border Protection processing for “entry”, either entering consumption channels immediately or entering after withdrawal for consumption from bonded warehouses under Customs custody or from Foreign Trade Zones.  Physical arrival of sugar that is only entered into a bonded warehouse or a Foreign Trade Zone does not constitute an import for USDA reporting purposes.  Imports are recorded in the month coinciding with the transaction date noted on the Custom’s form. 

You must be the “importer of record” to record an import.

In-process beet sugar means the intermediate product, as CCC determines produced from processing sugar beets.  Like sugar beets, it is considered an input into the production of sugar regardless of whether it is produced domestically or imported.  Domestically produced in-process beet sugar is eligible for a loan, but does not count against a processor’s marketing allocation upon sale.

In-process cane sugar means the intermediate sugar containing product, as CCC determines, produced in the processing of sugarcane. It is not raw sugar, nor is it suitable for direct human consumption.  Domestically produced in-process cane sugar is eligible for a loan and counts against a processor’s marketing allocation upon sale.

Inventory held for others means inventory that has been sold (title has transferred) but has not been delivered.

Invert sugar means a mixture of glucose (dextrose) and fructose (levulose) formed by the hydrolysis of sucrose.

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L

Liquid sugar means a direct-consumption sugar which is not principally of crystalline structure and which contains, or which is to be used for the production of, any sugars principally not of crystalline structure which contain soluble non-sugar solids (excluding any foreign substances that may have been added or developed in the product) equal to 6 percent or less of the total soluble solids. Liquid sugar is exclusive of cane syrup and edible molasses.

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M

Market or marketing means the transfer of title associated with the sale or other disposition of sugar for human consumption in United States commerce.   A marketing also includes a sale of sugar under the Feedstock Flexibility Program, the forfeiture of sugar loan collateral under the Sugar Loan Program, exportation of sugar from the United States customs territory eligible to receive credits under reexport programs for refined sugar or sugar containing products administered by the Foreign Agricultural Service, or the sale of sugar eligible to receive credit for the production of polyhydric alcohol under Polyhydric Alcohol program (see part 1530 of this title) administered by the Foreign Agricultural Service, and for any integrated processor and refiner, the movement of raw cane sugar into the refining process.

Molasses means thick syrup which is a byproduct of processing sugar beets or sugarcane, or of refining raw cane sugar. Weight is based on sugar solids contained.

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O

Other sugar means any sugar suitable for human consumption that does not require further refinement.  May include refined crystalline, liquid sugar, edible molasses, sugar syrups and cane syrups.

Over-allocation sales means all sales of sugar that have been sold over the processors’ allocation quantity. 

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P

Person means an individual, corporation, association, marketing or processing cooperative, joint stock company, estate or trust, or other legal entity.

Plant capacity means the maximum capability, on a short tons per day basis, of a processing or refining facility to process sugar beets (cleaned and tared), sugarcane, and/or raw sugar.

Processing facility means a distinct physical facility, at a single location, which processes sugarcane, sugar beets, or molasses into sugar.

Processing inputs means the quantity of raw materials (e.g., sugarcane, sugar beets, raw sugar, and molasses) used in processing or refining operations.

Processor stocks means all stocks that have not been previously sold.

Production means the output of beet sugar from the processing by sugar beet processors of domestically produced sugar beets, sugar beet molasses or in-process beet sugar whether produced domestically or imported; the output of cane sugar (including edible molasses and cane syrup) by sugarcane processors of domestically produced sugarcane or sugarcane molasses; or the output of sugar (including edible molasses and sugar syrup) from the processing by cane sugar refiners of raw cane sugar or imported molasses.

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R

Raw sugar means any sugar not suitable for human consumption without further refinement, regardless of polarity. 

Raw value means of any quantity of sugar means its equivalent in terms of raw sugar testing 96 sugar degrees, as determined by a polarimetric test performed under procedures recognized by the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis (ICUMSA). Direct-consumption sugar derived from sugar beets and testing 92 or more sugar degrees by the polariscope shall be translated into terms of raw value by multiplying the actual number of pounds of such sugar by 1.07. Sugar derived from sugarcane and testing 92 sugar degrees or more by the polariscope shall be translated into terms of raw value in the following manner: raw value = {[(actual degree of polarization -92) x 0.0175] + 0.93} x actual weight. For sugar testing less than 92 sugar degrees by the polariscope, derive raw value by dividing the number of pounds of the “total sugar content” (i.e., the sum of the sucrose and invert sugars) thereof by 0.972. 

Receipts mean the quantity of domestically-sourced raw materials (e.g., sugarcane, sugar beets, raw sugar, refined sugar, liquid sugar, syrups, and molasses) received by the processing facility, refining facility, liquid station or otherwise.

Refined crystalline sugar means centrifugal, crystalline sugar (including "high-polarity" sugar from raw cane mills, and "soft" or "brown" sugars) which is not to be further refined or improved in quality.

Refining facility means a distinct physical facility, at a single location, which processes raw sugar or imported molasses into refined sugar.

Re-export credit occurs when a licensee under the Refined Sugar Re-Export Program exports sugar, or transfers sugar to a licensee of the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program or the Polyhydric Alcohol Program.  At that point, the licensee receives a credit on his license.  He can subsequently import raw cane sugar, outside of any quota or high-tier duty.  Imports are recorded on his license as a debit.  Over time, debits and credits will balance; at any time, the license cannot exceed 50,000 metric tons raw value on either the debit or the credit side.

Re-export Program is designed to facilitate the use of domestic refining capacity to export refined sugar into the world market.  The program establishes a license against which a refiner can export domestically produced refined sugar and later import world raw sugar, import world raw sugar for refining and distribution into the domestic market and later export refined sugar, or import raw sugar, refine it and export it into the world market. The program was implemented to mitigate the imposition of restrictive quotas, which reduced the quantity of raw sugar allowed to enter the U.S. domestic market.  Imports of sugar under HTS 1701.11.20 are permitted only for those importers who hold a license issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.  The regulations are found at 7 CFR 1530, which implements authority given to the Secretary of Agriculture in Additional U.S. note 6 to chapter 17 of the HTS.

Reporters are cane refiners, cane processors and beet processors:

  • 1/ Cane Refiners:
    • The Amalgamated Sugar Company
    • American Sugar Refining, Inc.
    • AmCane Sugar Refining, Inc.
    • CSC Sugar
    • Florida Crystals Corporation
    • Imperial Distributing, Inc.
    • Louisiana Sugar Refining
    • Michigan Sugar Company
    • Southern Minnesota Beet Sugar Coop.
    • United States Sugar Corporation
    • Western Sugar Company
  • Cane Processors
    • Alma Plantation, Ltd.
    • Cajun Sugar Cooperative, Inc.
    • Cora-Texas Mfg. Company, Inc
    • Florida Crystals Corporation
    • Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company
    • Lafourche Sugars Corporation
    • Louisiana Sugar Cane Cooperative, Inc.
    • Lula-Westfield, LLC
    • M.A. Patout & Son, Ltd.
    • Rio Grande Valley Sugar Growers, Inc.
    • St. Mary Sugar Cooperative, Inc.
    • Sugarcane Growers Coop of Florida
    • United States Sugar Corporation
  • Beet Processors
    • The Amalgamated Sugar Company
    • American Crystal Sugar Company
    • Michigan Sugar Company
    • Minn-Dak Farmers Cooperative
    • Southern Minnesota Beet Sugar Cooperative
    • Western Sugar Company
    • Wyoming Sugar Growers

“Non-Reporter” is any company not listed as a Reporter

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S

Stocks means inventory of sugar on hand at the beginning and at the end of the calendar month for which data are being reported.

Sucrose means a disaccharide carbohydrate having the chemical formula C12H22O11.

Sugar means any grade or type of saccharine product derived, directly or indirectly, from sugarcane, sugar beets, sugarcane molasses, sugar beet molasses or in-process beet sugar whether domestically produced or imported and consisting of, or containing, sucrose or invert sugar, including raw sugar, refined crystalline sugar, edible molasses, edible cane syrup, liquid sugar, and in-process cane sugar.

Sugar for allotments means any grade or type of saccharine product processed, directly or indirectly, from sugarcane or sugar beets (including sugar produced from sugar beet or sugarcane molasses), produced for human consumption, and consisting of, or containing, sucrose or invert sugar, including raw sugar, refined crystalline sugar, edible molasses, edible cane syrup, and liquid sugar. 

Sugar beet processor means an allocation holder who commercially produces sugar, directly or indirectly, from sugar beets, sugar beet molasses, or in-process beet sugar whether domestically produced or imported, has a viable processing facility and a supply of sugar beets for the applicable allotment year.

Sugarcane processor means an allocation holder who commercially produces sugar, directly or indirectly, from sugarcane, has a viable processing facility and a supply of sugarcane for the applicable allotment year.

Sugar syrup means a direct-consumption liquid sugar with a sucrose content of less than 94 percent of the total soluble solids.  Weight is based on sugar solids contained.

Swap means when a sugar company delivers sugar for the account of another sugar company due to freight savings.  In turn the company who delivers the sugar to another sugar company’s customer will report such transaction to USDA as a shipment/return of swap sugar.  The receiving sugar company will report the transaction as a receipt of swap sugar.

Syrup means a viscous, concentrated sugar solution resulting from the evaporation of water, or the remaining liquor after crystallization of sugar from a solution.

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T

Tolling means when company A has a product (ex:  molasses and thick juice) that is owned by company B.  Company A converts the product to refined sugar and sends it back to company B.  Company B maintains ownership of it.

Ton means a short ton or 2,000 pounds.

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U

USDA means the United States Department of Agriculture.

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W

Weight Shrink/Gain:  means the percent change in sugar beet weight from the time of piling, until the time of slicing.  Shrink should be entered as a (-) negative. 

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